There are a number of subspecies of the Black Redstart (Phoenicurus ochruros) which differ mainly in underpart colours of the adult males.
In general, seven subspecies are accepted.
They can be separated into three species groups:
1. European species (grey-bellied): P. o. gibraltariensis (Europe) and P. o. aterrimus (only Iberian Peninsula and Morocco);
2. West Asian species (red-bellied): P. o. ochruros and P. o. semirufus; and
3. Central and East Asian species (red-bellied): P. o. phoenicuroides, P. o. rufiventris and P. o. xerophilus.
The male European species has a clear pale wing-patch and a blackish-grey belly and undertail.
The male West Asian species has a weak pale wing-patch and a blackish-grey breast and rufous belly and undertail.
The male Central and East Asian species is quite similar to the latter species but it has no pale wing-patch and shows more rufous then black on the breast.
A couple of Black Redstarts (P. o. gibraltariensis) was very busy feeding their 2 babies on the balcony of our hotel in Lindau.
Especially, the female (top & left photo: on the left) was doing the feeding. The baby (on the right) clearly shows its baby plumage (including a short tail).
Top, Left & Middle: Lindau, Bodensee, Germany, 11 July 2013
Right: A male. Mainau Island, Bodensee, Germany, 9 July 2013